paleozoology

Paleozoology is a branch of Palaeontology, the scientific field that studies and interprets fossils in their geological context. Paleozoology deals with the fossilized remains of somatic structures, fossils, belonging to vertebrate and invertebrate animal groups. Both groups, with a clear predominance of invertebrates, are present in various areas of the main islands of the archipelago of Madeira: Madeira, Porto Santo and Selvagens.

Keywords: Palaeontology; fossil vertebrates; fossil invertebrates; Miocene; quaternary; sedimentary rocks.

Vertebrate fossils

Mineralized bones from birds occur in certain levels of the eolianite formations in Ponta de S. Lourenço (Madeira) and Porto Santo. In Porto Santo, this formation is constituted by carbonated sandstone, bedrock of a yellowness color that occurs throughout the main beaches in this island. These sandstones, before cementing, accumulated in the shape of large dune buildings, intercalated with paleosols or slope deposits. At some of these levels, the eolic deflation caused the accumulation of remains of shells from terrestrial gastropods and some disconnected bird bones. Among the latter, most belong to mineralized osteological remains of shearwaters (Procellariidae) and petrels (Hydrobatidae). The sternum of a large penguin (Pinguinis impennis), several pigeon bones (Colomba sp.), raptors (Falco tinnunculus, Buteo buteo, Tyto alba and Otus scops), passerines (Turdus sp., Turdus merula, Fringilla coelebs madeirensis) and a rostrum of Coccothraustes coccothraustes were also found.

Rodent bones attributed to Mus musculus s.l. were also found in eolianite deposits in Madeira (Ponta de S. Lourenço) but still without being able to confirm their dating.

Teeth of fossilized fish are very rare in the fossil units of Madeira archipelago. Isolated molariform teeth from Sparidae have been found in Miocene levels in Porto Santo, in hyaloclastite in Serra de Dentro and in carbonated sandstones in Ilhéu de Cima. The species of Miocene shark Carcharodon megalodon (=Carcharocles megalodon) was reported for the Miocene in Porto Santo.

Invertebrate fossils

Invertebrate fossils are very frequent in certain sedimentary levels in calcareous rocks or in fossiliferous carbonated sandstones from the Neogene, intercalated with marine volcanic units or in the transition to the subaereal domain. They are particularly abundant in the carbonated rock outcrops in São Vicente, in the eolianite in Ponta de São Lourenço, in the island of Madeira, and in various places of Porto Santo, particularly in the Miocene levels in Serra de Fora and Serra de Dentro, in Ilhéu de Baixo or Cal, or in Ilhéu de Cima and also in the Quaternary marine terraces under the current beach sands, in the southern coastal sector west of Campo de Baixo.

GrupoLocal/BibliografiaListagem
CoraisMiocénico da Ilha do Porto Santo (BERKELEY-COTTER, 1888-92; Silva, 1959; CHEVALIER, 1972; BOEKSCHOTEN & BEST, 1981; BEST & BOEKSCHOTEN, 1982; CARVALHO & BRANDÃO, 1991; SANTOS et al., 2011)Acanthastrea (Isophyllastrea) madeirensis; Acantocyathus cf. verrucosus transsylvanicus
(Filo Cnidaria)Astrocaenia fromenteli; Balanophyllia (= Eupsammia) cf. varians; Caryophyllia (= Ceratocyathus, = Acanthocyathus) granulosa;
Ceratotrochus cf. duodecimcostatus
Dania calcinata (= Pocillopora madreporacea; Boekschoten & Best, 1981); Dendrophyllia cf. amica; D. cf. cladocoracea; D. cornigera; D. ramosa; Desmastraea (= Isatrea) mayeri; D. orbignyana; Edwardsotrochus sp.; Eupsammia cf. praelonga; Heliastraea reussana ?;
H. prevostana ?; Isastraea sp.; Isophyllastrea sp.; I. orbignyana; Lithophyllia cf. ampla; Madracis sp.; Montastrea sp.; Phyllocaenia thyrsiformis ?; Pocillopora madreporacea; Porites cf. collegniana; Solenastrea (= Palaeoplesiastrea) porto-sancti; Solenastrea (= Palaeoplesiastrea) turonensis; Tarbellastrea reussiana (= Stylopora reussiana)

Fig. 1 – Photograph of coral reef blocks of Miocene levels (Middle Miocene) from the southern end of Ilhéu de Baixo, Porto Santo. Photograph from the authors.

GrupoLocal/BibliografiaListagem
AnelídeosMiocénico da Ilha do Porto Santo (SILVA, 1959; CARVALHO & BRANDÃO, 1991)Serpula aulophora; Serpula crenulosa; Serpula elongata ?; Serpulorbis arenarius

GrupoLocal/BibliografiaListagem
Moluscos gastrópodes (Filo Mollusca, Classe Gastropoda)Miocénico da Ilha da Madeira (MAYER, 1864; CARVALHO & BRANDÃO, 1991)Cassis testiculus; Conus puschi; Conus tarbellianus; Fasciolaria tulipiformis; Strombus coronatus var. madeirensis; Strombus italicus; Strombus af. nodosus; Turbinella paucicauda; Vermiculus carinatus; Zonaria dertoflavicula.
Miocénico da Ilha do Porto Santo (JOKSIMOWITSCH, 1910; Silva, 1959; CARVALHO & BRANDÃO, 1991; LORENZ & GROH, 1998)Calyptraea portisancti; Cerithium sp.; Cerithium nodulosum ?; Cerithium vulgatum var. miospinosa; Chelyconus montisclavatus var. mamillospira; Conus sp.; Conus (Lithoconus) antiguus; Conus borsoni; Conus (Lithoconus) calcanatus; Conus mercatii; Conus reussi; Conus textile; Conus (Conospirus) dujardini; Crepidula fornicata ?; Cypraea argus (provavelmente moldes do bivalve Lithdomus; LORENZ & GROH, 1998); Cypraea brocchi; Cypraea pyrum (atualizada para Proadusta pygodentata; LORENZ & GROH, 1998); Cypraea sanguinolenta (atualizada para Luria palmula; LORENZ & GROH, 1998); Cypraea (Trona) stercoraria; Cypraea stenostoma (atualizada para ?Triona; LORENZ & GROH, 1998); Fasciolaria crassicauda; Fasciolaria nodifera; Hipponyx sulcatus; Luria santoensis; Murex borni ?; Natica redempta; Neritopsis radula; Neritopsis radula var. moledonensis; Olivella (Lamprodoma) clavula var. suvittata; Purpura rarisulcata; Strombus italicus; Tritonium sp.; Tritonium costellatum; Turritella bellardii; Turritella tricincta; Vermetus intortus; Vermiculus carinatus; Xantho sp.; Zonaria hemmenorum; Zonaria sorrira.
Miocénico da Ilha Selvagem Grande (BERKELEY-COTTER, 1892; BOEHM, 1898; JOKSIMOWITSCH, 1911; CARVALHO & BRANDÃO, 1991)Gibbula schimitzi; Janthina hartungi; Nerita martiniana; Nerita selvagensis; Littorina neritoides; Tectarius nodulosos ?; Cerithium rugosus; Purpura sismondae; Fasciolaria sp.; Lucina bellardiana; Nerita connectens; Nerita af. gallo-provincialis.
Quaternário dos eolianitos da Ponta de São Lourenço, Ilha da Madeira (WOLLASTON, 1878; CARVALHO & BRANDÃO, 1991)Geomitra (Helicomela) bowdichiana; Geomitra (Geomitra) delphinula; Helix abjecta; Helix actinophora var. normalis; Helix arcinella; Helix calva; Helix compacta var. major; Helix compacta var. normalis; Helix delphinula var. normalis; Helix delphinula var. planispira; Helix fausta; Helix membracea; Helix obserata var. bipartita; Helix paupercula; Helix polymorpha var. salebrosa; Helix sphaerula var. normalis; Helix squalida; Helix thiarella; Helix undata; Helix vulgata var. normalis; Leptaxis (Leptaxis) undata; Theba pisana.
Quaternário dos terraços marinhos do Porto Santo (SILVA, 1956b, 1957, 1972; Silva, 2003; CARVALHO & BRANDÃO, 1991)Alvania sp.; Astraea (Bolma) rugosa; Bittium sp.; Bursa (Bufonariella) scorbiculator; Calliostoma (Calliostoma) conulum; Cerithiopsis sp.; Cypraecassis testiculus subsp. senegalica; Fissurella sp.; Gibbula cf. richardi; Glycimeris glycimeris; Littorina (Algaroda) striata; Lurida lurida; Mitra cornicula; Nucella lapillus; ? Olivella sp.; Patella caerulea var. crenata; Patella caerulea var. lowei; Patella caerulea var. teneriffae; Patella candei; Patella citrullus; Patella lusitanica; Patella nigra; Patella rustica; Patella safiana; Phalium graulatum subsp. undulatum; Phasianella pullus; Ringicula sp.; Rissoa parva; Semicassis (Semicassis) saburon; Thais (Stramonita) haemastoma; Vermetus sp.
Quaternário dos eolianitos do Porto Santo (BERKELEY-COTTER, 1888-92; ORCHYMONT, 1936; SILVA, 1956a, 1957; CALAPEZ, 1989; CARVALHO & BRANDÃO, 1991)Clasusilia deltostoma var. raricostata; Ferussaria melampoides; Ferussaria ovuliformis; Geomitra bowdichiana; Geomitra (Plebecula) caniçalensis; Geomitra cheiranthicota; Geomitra cockerelli; Geomitra compacta; Geomitra compacta var. major; Geomitra coronata; Geomitra dealbata; Geomitra nitidiuscula; Geomitra obtecta; Geomitra obtecta var. minor; Geomitra polymorpha var. discina; Geomitra polymorpha var. attrita; Geomitra polymorpha var. pulvinata; Geomitra tectiformis; Geomitra tectiformis var. ludovici; Helix subplicata; Iberus wollastoni; Iberus wollastoni var. forensi; Leptaxis chrysomela; Leptaxis chrysomela var. fluctuosa; Leptaxis lowei; Leptaxis neivai; Leptaxis phlebophora; Leptaxis phlebophora var. planata; Leptaxis phlebophora var. nivosa; Leptaxis (Pseudocampylaea) porto-sanctana; Leptaxis wollastoni.
Quaternário da Selvagem Pequena (TALAVERA, 1978)Amphissa costulata; Astraea rugosa; Barleia rubra; Bittium incile; Bursa scrobiculator; Chauvetia crassior; Columbella rustica var. striata; Diodora gibberula; Fossarus ambiguus; Gibbula candei; Jujubinus ruscurianus; Littorina striata; Luria lurida; Mitra fusca; Mitrella hidalgoi; Nucella lapillus; Ocinebrina fusiformis; Osilinus atratus; Patella candei; Patella moreleti; Phyllonotus trunculus; Rissoa sp.; Setia sp.; Spiroglyphus glomeratus; Striagatella zebrina; Thais haemastoma; Triphora obesula; Turbonilla sp.; Turbona leacocki; Zebina vitrea.

 

GrupoLocal/BibliografiaListagem
Moluscos bivalvesMiocénico da Ilha da Madeira (MAYER, 1864; CARVALHO & BRANDÃO, 1991)Cardium comatulum; Cardium hartungi; Cardium (Laevicardium) multicostatum; Cardium pectinatum; Chama gryphoides; Cytherea madeirensis; Gigantopecten latissimus; Janthina hartungi; Lithophaga lyelliana; Lucina atlantica; Lucina bellardiana; Lucina lactea; Lucina pagenstecheri; Lucina sinuosa; Lucina tigrina; Modiola (Brachydontes) taurinensis; Monodonta aaronis; Pecten cf. nodosus; Pecten pesfelis; Pectunculus conjugens; Pectunculus multiformes; Pectunculus pilosus; Spondylus inermis; Venus (Onphaloclathrum) aglaurae; Venus (Ventricola) circularis
(Filo Mollusca, Classe Bivalvia)
Miocénico da Ilha do Porto Santo (JOKSIMOWITSCH, 1910; Silva, 1959; CARVALHO & BRANDÃO, 1991)Aequipecten dentronensis; A. spinosovatus; A. tripartitus; Alectryonia sp., Alectryonia plicatula var. germanitalia; A. plicatula var. taurinensis; Amussiopecten burdigalensis; Arca lactea; A. navicularis; A. nivea; A. (Barbatia) barbata; A. tetragona; A. tetragona var. perbrevis; A. clathrata; Avicula crossei; Axinea pilosa; A. multiformis; A. insubrinca; Cardium comatulum; Cardium cf. hartungi; C. pectinatum; Cardita calyculata; C. duboisi; Chama gryphoides; C. lazarus; C. macerophylla; Chlamys angelonii; Chlamys costai ?; Chlamys gloriamaris var. longolaevis ?; Chlamys noronhai; Chlamys reissi; Clavagella aperta; Codokia leonina; Cypricardia nucleus; Cytherea madeirensis; Diplodonta rotundata; Gastrochaena cuvieri; Gastrochaena gigantea; Gigantopecten latissimus; Glycymeris multiformes; Jagonia reticulata ?; Lima lima; Lima atlantica; Lithodomus lyellanus; Lithodomus moreleti; Lithophagus cf. lithophagus; Lithophagus lyellanus; Lithophagus papilliferus; Lucina tigerina; Monodonta aaronis; ? Myrtea (Lucina) cf. strigillata; Mytilus domengensis; Omphaloclathrum miocenicum; Omphaloclathrum aglaurae; Ostrea hyotis; Parvochlamys cf. oolaevis; Pecten burdigalensis; Pecten reussi; Pectunculus pilosus; Pectunculus multiformis; Perna soldanii; Perna maxillata; Perna maxillata var. soldani; Pinna brochii ?; Plicatula brownina; Psamophila oblonga; Pycnodonta cf. brongniarti; Radula lima var. dispar; Radula lima var. pliodispar; Radula lima var. subtilis; Spondylus baixonensis; Spondylus brancai; Spondylus concentricus; Spondylus concentricus var. imbricata; Spondylus delesserti; Spondylus gaederopus var. inermis; Spondylus gaederopus var. deshayesi; Spondylus selesserti; Spondylus noronhai; Venus cf. aglaurae; Venus burdigalensis; Venus bronni; Venus multilamella; Venus multilamella var. taurominor; Venus multilamella var. taurorolunda; Venus (Ventricula) circularis.
Miocénico da Ilha Selvagem Grande (BERKELEY-COTTER, 1892; BOEHM, 1898; JOKSIMOWITSCH, 1910, 1911; CARVALHO & BRANDÃO, 1991)Cabralia schimitzi; Gastrana mayeri; Oxyustele bohmi
Quaternário dos terraços quaternários do Porto Santo (SILVA, 1956b, 1957, 1972; SILVA, 2003; CARVALHO & BRANDÃO, 1991).Acanthocardia tuberculata; Arca sp.; Callista chione; Cardita calyculata; Cardium sp.; Cardium tuberculatus; Chlamys pesfelis; Ervilia castânea; Glycymeris glycymeris; Laevicardium norvegicum; Lima lima; Meterix chione; Nanella scrobiculator; Pecten corallinoides; Pecten maximus; Spondylud gaederopus; Venus verrucosa.
Quaternário da Selvagem Pequena (TALAVERA, 1978).Beguina calyculata; Codokia reticulata.

 

GrupoLocal/BibliografiaListagem
Briozoários (Filo Briozoa)Miocénico da Ilha do Porto Santo (SILVA, 1959; CARVALHO & BRANDÃO, 1991)Escharina biaperta; Escharina incisa.

GrupoLocal/BibliografiaListagem
Cirrípedes (Filo Arthropoda, Crustacea, Cirripedia)Miocénico da Ilha do Porto Santo (SILVA, 1959; CARVALHO & BRANDÃO, 1991; SANTOS et al., 2011b).Balanus sp.; Ceratoconcha costata.

GrupoLocal/BibliografiaListagem
Equinóides (Filo Echinodermata, Classe Equinoidea)Equinóides do Miocénico da Madeira (MAYER, 1864; JOKSIMOWITSCH, 1910; CARVALHO & BRANDÃO, 1991)Echinolampas sp.; Clypeaster altus; Clypeaster crassicostatus; Clypeaster portentosus.
Miocénico da Ilha do Porto Santo (JOKSIMOWITSCH, 1910; SILVA, 1959; CARVALHO & BRANDÃO, 1991; BAARLI et al., 2013)Clypeaster sp.; Clypeaster altus; Clypeaster portentosus var. intermedia; Clypeaster scillae; Clypeaster scillae var. crassicostata; Pericosmus latus; Rhabdocidaris sismondai; Spatangus sp.

Fig. 2 – Photograph of a specimen of Clypeaster altus from the carbonated levels of the Upper Miocene in S. Vicente. Photograph from Joel Freitas – Rota da Cal.

Ichnology

Ichnofossils, fossils of impressions of the activities of invertebrate animals are also included here. Examples of these occurrences are impressions of the dwelling of lithophagous organisms (Domichnia ichnofossils), bivalve mollusks (Gastrochaenolites torpedo, G. lapidicus, G. ornatus), polychaete annelids (Caulostrepsis isp. and Trypanites isp.), cirripede crustaceans (Imbutichnus costatum) and sponges (Entobia isp.) in blocks of coral reefs, produced during the coral’s life or after its death. The ichnogenus Gastrochaenolites is particularly abundant in certain fossil corals that occurred in the old fronts of limestone, for lime exploration, in the south part of Ilhéu da Cal or de Baixo, in Porto Santo. Bioturbation patterns occur, for example Bichordites isp. and Dactyloidites isp. in Ilhéu de Baixo (Porto Santo).

Calcareous algae fossils

Given its importance in the context of the fossil record of Porto Santo, rhodolith occurrences are also referred here. Locally known as “laranjas” (oranges), these fossilized rounded structures, with dimensions of centimeters and decimeters, typically with small round protuberances or already with the surface rolled and worn, were produced not by animal organisms but by calcareous red algae, rhodophytes (Division Rhodophyta), sometimes in large quantities as in the biocalcarenites in Cabeço das Laranjeiras, in the northeast end of Ilhéu de Cima. These rhodoliths form when these algae develop unattached, without being attached to the rocky substrate, developing when exposed to sunlight and rolling on themselves by the action of waves and currents. The growth nucleus can be a small shell or pebble, as evidenced by some fractured specimens. The following algae have been identified:

 

GrupoLocal/BibliografiaListagem
Rodólitos (Reino Plantae, Divisão Rhodophyta)Miocénico da Ilha do Porto Santo (CACHÃO et al., 2000; JOHNSON et al., 2011; SANTOS et al., 2012b).Hydrolithon sp.; Lithothamnion sp.; Lithophyllum sp.; Lithoporella melobesioides (formas “crustose”); Neogoniolithon sp.; Peyssonneliacean; Sporolithon sp.

Fig. 3 – Photograph of the Middle Miocene level rich in rhodoliths (“laranjas”, oranges) among basaltic flows in Cabeço das Laranjas (Ilhéu de Cima, Porto Santo). Photograph from the authors.

Bibliog.: BAARLI, B.G. et al., “A Middle Miocene carbonate embankment on an active volcanic slope: Ilhéu de Baixo, Madeira Archipelago, Eastern Atlantic”, Geological Journal, 150 (1), 2013, p. 183-189; BERKELEY-COTTER, J.C., “Notícia de alguns moluscos terrestres fósseis do archipélago”, Comunic. Serv. Geol. Portugal, 2 (2), Lisboa, 1888-92, pp. 232-254; BEST, M. W. e BOEKSCHOTEN, G. J., “On the coral fauna in the Miocene reef at Baixo, Porto Santo (Eastern Atlantic)”, Netherlands Journal of Zoology, vol. xxxii, n.º 3, 1982, pp. 412-418; BOEHM, J., “Ueber Miocane Conchylien von den Selvajens-inseln”, Zeitschr. Deut. Geol. Ges., 50, 1898, pp. 33-39; BOEKSCHOTEN, G. J. & BEST, M. W., “Pocillopora in the Miocene reef at Baixo, Porto Santo (Eastern Atlantic)”, Palaeontology, Proceedings B 84 (1), 1981, pp. 13-20; CACHÃO, Mário et al., “Paleoenvironmental and taphonomical interpretation of Miocene rhodoliths from Porto Santo (Madeira Archipelago, Portugal)”, in I Congresso Ibérico de Paleontologia, Évora, s.n., 2000, pp. 42-43; CALAPEZ, P., “Moluscos terrestres do Quaternário de Porto Santo: Estudo geométrico de algumas espécies”, Memórias e Notícias, n.º 107, Coimbra, Univ. Coimbra, 1989, pp. 11-26; CARVALHO, A. M. Galopim de e BRANDÃO, J. M., Geologia do Arquipélago da Madeira, Lisboa, Museu Nacional de História Natural, 1991, p. 170; CHEVALIER, J. P., “Les Scléractinaires du Miocène de Porto Santo (Archipel de Madère): étude paléontologique”, Ann. Paléont. Invert., 58, 1972, pp. 141-160; JOHNSON, M. E. et al., “Rhodolith transport and immobilization on a volcanically active rocky shore: Middle Miocene at Cabeço das Laranjas on Ilhéu de Cima (Madeira Archipelago, Portugal)”, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol, vol. 300, 2011, pp. 113-127; JOKSIMOWITSCH, Z. J., “Die zweite Mediterranstufe von Porto Santo und Selvagem”, Zeitschr. Deut. Geol. Ges., 62, 1910, pp. 43-96; JÉRÉMINE, E., “Contribution à la connaissance lithologique de la Grande Selvage”, Revista da Faculdade de Ciências, 2.ª Série, C I (1), Lisboa, 1911, pp. 5-20; LORENZ, F. e GROH, K., “Five new species of Cypraeidae from the Middle Miocene (‘Vindobonian’) of Porto Santo, Madeira Archipelago”, Arch. Molluskenkunde, vol. 127, n.º 1-2, 1998, pp. 107-114; MAYER, K., “Paleontologische Verhaltnisse – systematische Verzeichniss der fossilen reste von Madeira, Porto Santo und Santa Maria”, in HARTUNG, Engelmann Verlag, Leipzig, s.n., 1864, p. 299; ORCHYMOND, A., Porto Santo, “Ses sables calcaires. L’Atlantide”, Bull. Mus. royal d’Hist. nat. Belgique, XII (43), Bruxelles, 1936, pp. 1-24; PIEPER, H., “Ein subfossiles Vorkommen der Hausmaus (Mus musculus s.l.) auf Madeira”, Bocagiana, 59, 1981, pp. 1-3; Id., “The fossil land birds of Madeira and Porto Santo”, Bocagiana, 88, 1985, pp. 1-6; RANDO, J. C. et al., “Radiocarbon evidence for the presence of mice on Madeira Island (North Atlantic) one millennium ago”, Proceedings of the Royal Society B., 281, 2014, p. 5; SANTOS, A. et al., “Miocene intertidal zonation on a volcanically active shoreline: Porto Santo in the Madeira Archipelago, Portugal”, Lethaia, 44, 2011, pp. 26-32; Id., “Extreme habitat adaptation by boring bivalves on volcanically active paleoshores from North Atlantic Macaronesia”, Facies, 58, 2012, pp. 325-338; Id., “Basalt mounds and adjacent depressions attract contrasting biofacies on a volcanically active Middle Miocene coastline (Porto Santo, Madeira Archipelago, Portugal)”, Facies, 58, 2012, pp. 573-585; SILVA, G. H., “Gastrópodes terrestres fósseis do Quaternário da ilha de Porto Santo e descrição de uma nova espécie de Helicídeo”, Memórias e Notícias, 41, 1956, pp. 40-43; Id., “Contribution à la connaissance de la faune fossile de l’île de Porto Santo”, Memórias e Notícias, 42, 1956, pp. 26-28; Id., “Descrição de Gastrópodes terrestres fósseis do Quaternário da Ilha de Porto Santo”, Memórias e Notícias, 44, 1957, pp. 10-32; Id., “Fauna quaternária da ilha do Porto Santo”, Memórias e Notícias, 73, 1972, pp. 61-65; Id., “Fósseis do Miocénico marinho da ilha do Porto Santo”, Memórias e Notícias, 48, 1959, pp. 361-363; SILVA, J. B. P., Areia da Praia da Ilha do Porto Santo, Geologia, Génese, Dinâmica e propriedades justificativas do seu interesse medicinal, Funchal, Madeira Rochas, 2003; TALAVERA, F.G., “Sobre el Quaternario marino de la isla Selagem Pequena”, in Contribucion al estúdio de la Historia Natural de las islas Selvages, s.l., Museo Ciencias Naturales de Santa Cruz de Tenerife, 1978, pp. 37-44; WOLLASTON, T. V., Testacea Atlantica or the land and freshwater shells of the Azores, Cape Verde and Saint Helena, Londres, s.n., 1878.

Mário Cachão

Ricardo Ramalho

(updated 28.10.2016)